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Pediatric - Carlos J. Sivit, MD*

1. Brain
    A. Trauma
        1. Cephalohematoma and capput succinadeum
        2. Unintentional blunt and penetrating
        3. Intentional (Battered child)
    B. Infection
        1. TORCH infections
        2. Meningitis, cerebritis, cerebral abscess
        3. Mastoiditis
    C. Non-traumatic hemorrhage
        1. Neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage
        2. AVM, aneurysm, moya-moya, coagulation disorders
    D. Cerebral ischemia
        1. Perinatal brain injury
        2. Sickle cell disease
    E. Imaging the child with seizures

2. Head & Neck
    a. Trauma
        1. Facial (orbit, zygoma, maxilla, mandible, frontal, nasal)
    b. Infection
        1. Croup
        2. Epiglottitis
        3. Retropharyngeal abscess
        4. Parotitis
        5. Orbital cellulitis

3. Spine
    a. Trauma
        1. Cervical spine
        2. Thoracic spine
        3. Lumbar spine
     b. Infection
        1. Osteomyelitis/discitis
        2. Epidural abscess
     c. Miscellaneous
        1. Imaging the child with acute back pain

4. Chest
    a. Trauma
        1. Pulmonary contusion/laceration
        2. Thoracic air leak
        3. Mediastinal hemorrhage
        4. Esophageal and airways injury
        5. Chest wall injury
     b. Infection
        1. Pneumonia
            a. Neonatal pneumonia
            b. Bacterial pneumonia
            c. Viral pneumonia
            d. Opportunistic infection
         2. Empyema & pleural disease
      c. Foreign body aspiration
      d. Neonatal respiratory distress
          1. Respiratory distress syndrome
          2. Meconium aspiration syndrome
          3. Transient tachypnea of the newborn
       e. Congenital heart disease
       f. Congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema

5. Abdomen
    a. Trauma
        1. Solid viscus injury
        2. Hollow viscus injury
        3. Peritoneal fluid, hemoperitoneum & active hemorrhage
        4. Hypoperfusion complex
    b. Non-traumatic hemorrhage
        1. Adrenal hemorrhage
    c. Infection/Inflammation
        1. Appendicitis
        2. Pancreatitis
        3. Cholecystitis
        4. Cholangitis
        5. Pyelonephritis
    d. Bowel obstruction
        1. Midgut malrotation
        2. Bowel atresias
        3. Intestinal intussusception
        4. Hirschprungs disease
        5. Meconium ileus, meconium plug syndrome & meconium peritonitis
     e. GI bleeding f. Immunocomprimised disorders
         1. Neutropenic typhlitis
         2. Pseudomembranous colitis
     g. Obstructive uropathy
     h. Urolithiasis

6. Pelvis
    a. Trauma
        1. Bladder and urethral injury
    b. Infection/Inflammatory
        1. PID
        2. Ovarian cystic disease & torsion

7. Scrotum
    a. Trauma
    b. Infection/Inflammatory
       1. Neonatal testicular torsion
       2. Testicular torsion in older children
       3. Epididymitis/Orchitis

8. Musculoskeletal
    a. Trauma
        1. Battered child
        2. Growth plate injury (Case 1) (Case 2) (Case 3) (Case 4) (Case 5)
        3. Toddlers fracture
        4. Nursemaids elbow
        5. Elbow injury & normal developmental variants
        6. Biomechanical features of growing long bones
     b. Infection
         1. Osteomyelitis
         2. Septic arthritis
         3. Pyomyositis
      c. Miscellaneous
         1. Child with limp

9. Pediatric sedation & monitoring in the emergency setting 

Credits:

AUTHOR: CARLOS J. SIVIT, MD*
CASE ILLUSTRATION EDITOR: JOHNATHAN M. LOEWEN, MD

*Fellow of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (FASER)

Suggested readings:

Swischuk LE, Imaging of the Newborn, Infant & Youn Child. Williams & Wilkins, 1997.

Kirks D. Practical Pediatric Imaging: Diagnostic Radiology of Infants & Children, Little Brown & Company, 1995.

Siegel MJ, Sivit CJ. Radiologic Clinics of North America: Imaging of the Acute Pediatric Abdomen, W.B. Saunders, July 1997.

Stringer DA, Babyn PS. Pediatric gastrointestinal imaging and intervention. B.C. Decker Inc, 2000.

Harris JH, Harris WH, (eds). The Radiology of Emergency Medicine. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 2000.

Harris JH, Mirvis SE. The Radiology of Acute Cervical Spine Trauma. Williams
and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, Third Edition, 1995.

McCort JJ, Trauma Radiology. Churchill Livingstone, New York, NY.1990.

Mirvis SE, Young JWR. Imaging in Trauma and Acute Care. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1992.

Novelline RA. Advances in Emergency Radiology, Volumes I and II, Radiological Clinics of North America. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1999.

Stern EJ. Trauma Radiology Companion. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA 1997.

Eustace SJ. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Orthopedic Trauma. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 1999.

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